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In addition to the Kyoto Protocol (and its amendment) and the Paris Agreement, the parties to the convention agreed to other commitments at the conferences of the parties to the UNFCCC. These include the Bali Action Plan (2007), [28] the Copenhagen Agreement (2009), [29] on the Cancun Agreements (2010), [30] and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2012). [31] The treaty establishes different jurisdictions for three categories of signatory states. These categories are industrialized countries, industrialized countries with special financial responsibility and developing countries. [6] Developed countries, also mentioned in Appendix 1, were originally composed of 38 states, 13 of which were in transition to democracy and the market economy, and the European Union. All are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Schedule 1 countries are encouraged to adopt national policies and take appropriate measures to mitigate climate change by limiting their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reporting on measures taken to return, individually or collectively, to their 1990 emission levels. [6] Developed countries with special financial responsibility are also referred to as “Annex II countries.” They cover all Schedule I countries, with the exception of those in transition to democracy and the market economy. Appendix II countries are encouraged to provide new and additional financial resources to cover the costs borne by developing countries when they commit to establishing national inventories of their emissions by source and their well disposal for all greenhouse gases not covered by the Montreal Protocol. [6] Developing countries are then required to submit their inventories to the UNFCCC secretariat. [6] Given that the major signatory countries are not meeting their individual obligations, it is criticized that the UNFCCC has failed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions since its adoption. [7] Academics and environmentalists criticize Article 3, paragraph 5 of the Convention, which states that any climate action that would limit international trade should be avoided.

At the 19th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in Warsaw in 2013, the UNFCCC set up a Planned National Contribution Mechanism (INDC) to be presented in preparation for the 21st Conference of the Parties in Paris (COP21) in 2015. [23] Countries have benefited from freedom and flexibility to ensure that these climate change and adaptation plans are appropriate at the national level; [24] This flexibility, particularly with regard to the types of measures to be taken, has enabled developing countries to adapt their plans to their specific adaptation and mitigation needs as well as to other needs. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty on climate change, negotiated and signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNFCCC), informally as a Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3-14 June 1992. It established a secretariat based in Bonn and came into force on 21 March 1994. [1] The Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first extension of the UNFCCC.